Agricultural extension has undergone a paradigm shift, from transfer of technology tot approaches to innovation systems approaches, which perceive the agricultural development process as complex and dynamic and with institutional pluralism against the conventional linear and unidirectional approaches. Current extension concepts include participation, facilitation, partnerships, and sustainability. Participants in this course will gain an understanding of global issues and trends facing contemporary agricultural and extension organizations, communication and leadership. The nigerian agricultural extension service 30th inaugural lecture of the university of nigeria delivered on april 29, 2008 michael c. A total of 38 authors from 15 countries contributed to the 23 chapters of this book and thus they provided. It discusses extension functions in agricultural production institutions and varying institutional settings, describes types of extension systems, and considers farmers degree of influence on extension systems and multiple extension systems.
Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to. An analysis of the transforming agricultural and rural extension, rural development and food security issues is followed by a set of. Use the menu on the left to find additional resources for finding books, articles, and more. This is an extremely rough guide, but can help extension staff select the most costeffective methods. Problems and issues challenging agricultural research and. Lalitha, suresh chandra babu, in agricultural extension reforms in south asia, 2019. Agricultural extension is an important tool for rural development, especially in less industrialized counties extension workers play a vital role in educating farmers to produce better crops and more productive animals at lower cost. National agricultural extension systems reform initiative.
The process of achieving technological change in agriculture involves three basic steps, each a component of the research and extension system. This study aims to provide an alternative conceptual framework for agricultural extension, which can deal with environmental scarcity, conflict and challenges in sustainable way. Overview of different extension models and approaches. Agricultural extension services organized demonstration projects to familiarize farmers with the approach. The seasonal extension monitoring system measures costeffectiveness, by taking the total cost of an event, and dividing it by the number of farmers who participated. For instance, the annual growth rate of agriculture valueadded in ssa was only 1. Agricultural extension services an overview sciencedirect. The survey has been conducted by the authors during 2008 in all of the extension offices in serbia using the semistructured.
Scribd is the worlds largest social reading and publishing site. There are several extension methods in use today geared at achieving this goal. Extension and advisory services rural extension services. Reforming the agricultural extension system in india ifpri.
Birner 3 abstract after years of extension reform efforts in africa, there. Cost sharing cost recovery approach, commodity specific approach, farmer field schools, convergence of sciences and innovation systems approaches. Agricultural extension activity is important agrarianpolitical instrument of the state which stimulates the development of agricultural production. This book was written by burton swanson, with inputs from and overall guidance by. The contents are provided free for noncommercial purpose such as teaching, training, research, extension and self learning. Extension provides a critical support service for rural producers meeting the new challenges confronting agriculture. A study conducted in kenya in 2002 revealed that today a pluralistic system is being built using both elements of past approaches and current development theory. Quite interesting book for my community and career development. Public sector agricultural extension approaches previous and current extension approaches by the public sector in ghana have been found to pay less attention to the human development aspect of farmers ntifosiaw and agunga, 1994. Agricultural extension an overview sciencedirect topics. Issues and background summary agricultural research, education, and extension developed as a mission area within the u. The agenda should include a statement of 1 goals, 2 actions to.
Current concepts and approaches in agricultural extension. Comparing anglophone and francophone approaches to farming systems research and extension. The directorate of extension education of the university is primarily responsible for keeping the extension personnel of the states department of agriculture up to date with the new agricultural technology, communication of new agricultural technology to farmers, the training to farmers and extension personnel bringing out suitable extension. Students of extension education realize that some extension systems are likely to fit. Global approaches to extension practice gaep, a publication of the department of agricultural extension, federal university of technology, owerri, imo state, nigeria is an international journal which considers articles from all areas of agricultural extension. Public sector agricultural extension approaches in ghana have been criticized as being ineffective in. Strengthening agricultural extension and advisory systems iii. Part 8 focuses on approaches to livestock extension, while part 9 provides some livestock management technologies.
A sustainable approach to providing agricultural extension services in developing countriesminimal external inputs, a systems orientation, pluralism, and arrangements that take advantage of the best incentives for farmers and extension service providerswill release the local knowledge, resources, common sense, and organizing ability of rural. Extension approaches and methodologies free download as powerpoint presentation. Joe expands and updates the research and knowledge base for extension professionals and other adult educators to improve their effectiveness. Using key elements of any extension approach, the table attempts to differentiate between these two. Issues and priorities in agricultural extension john peters extension advisor, usaidbfs. Extensionan approach for innovative agricultural development. In kenya, numerous approaches have been tried with varying success.
Agricultural extension service has to be competent in agricultural skills, to communicate efficiently with producers and stimulate them to acquire new knowledge. Agricultural extension has been described as a system of outofschool. Aimed at agricultural extension planners, managers, trainers, educators, and field practitioners, this book could be useful in improving the quality of agricultural extension and in generating new ideas and methods for increasing further the costeffectiveness of agricultural extension programmes. This conference provided an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned from a wide range of experiences. The second chapter traces the evolution of agricultural extension thinking and. This document seeks to identify relevant extension methods in different situations for maximum impact, taking into consideration the diversity of needs by the whole spectrum of extension beneficiaries clients. This source book, a joint effort of ilri and ifpriisnar, compiles available and recent. Issues and approaches find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate.
In addition, joe serves as a forum for emerging and contemporary issues affecting extension education. Extension approaches and methodologies agriculture. Emerging agricultural extension approach among local. Home agricultural and extension education libguides at. Most research in extension focused on issues such as adoption of crops or livestock. Topics range from social issues to environment, health, education and science and technology. Agricultural extension is defined as those who support people engaged in agricultural production through the facilitation of their efforts to progress and find solutions. This book is composed of seventeen chapters, featuring unique extension. Credit seminar on innovative extension approaches in india for effective outreach alok kumar sahoo roll20509 m. Problems and issues challenging agricultural research and extension. Two sections on extension systems and extension approaches contain multiple essays on. The case of ugandas policy reform process 19962011 39 proceedings innovations in extension and advisory services international conference were selected to focus the study.
This book can be used by students and practitioners of extension. Advances and challenges in agricultural extension and rural. The new edition continues to present basic principles which can be applied to all situations, but has been revised to take account of the changes that have. Approaches to agricultural extension delivery the general agricultural extension approach, training and visit approach, farming systems research approach. Conclusions regarding the importance 1 of implementing both decentralized, participatory, adaptive, and pluralistic demand and supplyside extension approaches.
Extension and advisory services rural extension services for. Extension administration and supervision, programme planning, monitoring and evaluation. Agriculture extension books pdf, lecture notes, sample. Get the latest books from publishers such as asia tech publications, teri press, phi learning at best price. Concepts and practices in agricultural extension in. In thinking about our health care crisis and reform, he started looking for models in american history that have worked to transform systems. Ppt agricultural extension powerpoint presentation.
The journal of extension joe is the official refereed journal for extension professionals. This book will be very helpful to the researchers, planners, policy makers in planning and. Department of agriculture usda during the first 50 years of the departments existence. Feb 04, 2017 innovative extension approaches in india 1. To increase the impact of extension on agriculture and propoor growth in developing countries, publicsector agricultural extension systems are implementing reforms that include demanddriven and decentralized approaches. Extension providing a strong public sector research and extension system means focusing on the continuum of technological change. This manual is a practical guide for extension workers in agriculture. Emerging trends and issues in agricultural and extension education. Resource rights and tenure microfinance gender issues crosscultural. Part i is a map of agricultural extensions territory, that is, the definitions and systems. Agricultural extension is an ongoing process that communicate useful information to the people and assist them to use the information or technology to improve the quality of their life, their families and communities. Enhancement of extension systems in agriculture asian. Concepts and practices in agricultural extension in developing.
This title is available over the internet as an apo ebook, and has not been. To achieve this goal, national extension systems will need to enhance the technical, management, and marketing skills i. The lack of a national framework for extension and advisory services created unnecessary confusion with regard to roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders on service delivery. Defining extension extension is defined broadly to include. Most of sources of each subjected listed in the further reading section at the end of the manual.
Evaluating the impact of agricultural extension programmes. Extension personnel provided scouting services initially free of charge, then subsidized, with subsidies declining over time at the same time as they provided training in scouting methods and treatment guidelines. Extension service had to face such issues as management of collective natural resources, value chain management, collective input supply and marketing. Documentation of the second regional workshop of the sector network on rural development snrd extension working group on. It contains simple, easy to follow tools on the commonly used extension methods and an outline of how extension may be planned and implemented. These new issues typically required new forms of coordinated action and cooperation among farmers, between farmers and stakeholders. As currently organized, usdas agricultural research service ars is the inhouse scientific research agency. Part i is a map of agricultural extension s territory, that is, the definitions and systems. In many countries, extension systems have undergone profound change during the last 20 years, from a centrallycontrolled, topdown approach to one that encourages many different organizations to interact with farmers as equal partners. In the paper, the authors analyse problems in the extension work and farmers needs on the basis of the empirical sociological survey that comprised attitudes of all the agricultural extension workers in serbia. Chapter 1 the history, development, and future of agricultural.
Assessment of the factors impacting agricultural extension. Agricultural extension manual for extension workers. What has been the impact of this new level of investment. Setting priorities in line with farmers problems and national policies and strategies are key for. The author believes that, rather than producing confusion and frustration in the field, the great variety of methodologies, institutional frameworks, and program priorities provides a rich field of ideas for study and practice. Other issues affecting efficiency of the extension system include poor organizational structure, poor administrative and institutional structure, lack of clientele involvement in the planning process, and untimely provision of extension services campbell, 1999. Current concepts and approaches in agricultural extension in.
The performance of the agricultural sector in ssa has been unsatisfactory and lagging behind its population growth. Alternative models have emerged that recognise other actors than. The journal of agricultural extension is devoted to the advancement of knowledge of agricultural extension services and practice through the publication of original and empirically based research, focusing on. Extension approaches, agricultural extension system, botswana extension. Nov 21, 2007 a textbook of agricultural extension management c. Extension approaches and methodologies agriculture social. Reforming the agricultural extension system in india. Emerging agricultural extension approach among local ghanaian. Stakeholders who provide extension services work to obtain information, skills, and technologies to improve producer livelihoods and strengthen linkages within the agricultural value chain. Advances and challenges in agricultural extension and rural development l. A holistic approach to agricultural extension service goes beyond technology transfer for major crop and livestock production systems.
Agricultural technology management agency in the context of dairy development. It highlights some generic problems faced at various stages of evolution and approaches to. Buy agriculture extension textbooks, lecture notes, sample papers online at kopykitab. Agricultural extension and development my development diary. Dimensions of agriculture extension pdf book agrimoon. Proceedings, farming systems researchextension symposium, kansas state university. The examples given below are taken from a number of books on extension. Pdf on feb 1, 2008, ananth natarajan and others published agricultural extension system. Traditional extension systems focus on increasing agricultural productivity, use a topdown approach and often emphasise the transfer of technology. This guide is written within the context of rural development and agricultural systems to be found in what we refer to as the developing world.
Environmental conversation through sustainable farming practices is now an essential part of extension work following the 1992 earth summit which put sustainable development on the international political agenda, participatory approaches empowerment are now emphasised, increased role of nongovernment organizations in extension work. Many different agricultural extension models have been utilized in developing countries in order to bring about rural development. Emerging trends and issues in agricultural and extension. Classic textbooks on agricultural extension are out of stock or have not been updated in. Evaluating the impact of agricultural extension programmes in. If you are facing any problem than fill form contact us. Supporting the livelihood of millions of indonesians, it needs to underpin renewed and robust growth of the economy.
Madukwe professor of agricultural extension university of nigeria, nsukka published by the university of nigeria senate ceremonials committee printed by university of nigeria press ltd. Chapter 2 reforms in agricultural extension service system in bangladesh. A practicing surgeon who is also a wonderful writer. Extension systems and highlights the role of extension services in this context. This model for extension, however, is becoming outdated in the more competitive, marketoriented climate of todays agriculture. This second of a twopart article on global policy trends in agricultural extension deals with complexity. Problems in the extension work and farmers needs in serbia. Policy issues related to developing more pluralistic. Agricultural extension reforms in south asia sciencedirect. Whether the extension approach is effective or not became a subject for debate. By the close of the nineteenth century, agricultural extension systems modelled to a considerable extent on the german wanderlehrer had spread. Agricultural and rural extension worldwide food and agriculture.1615 906 231 944 654 890 951 349 95 1436 1282 34 729 1081 313 509 1051 1536 60 1462 902 593 690 1582 503 483 1128 171 882 540 808 83 1495 169 4 758 161 203 1401 759 92 694 1146